A Short History of Europe: From the Greeks and Romans to the by Antony Alcock (auth.)

By Antony Alcock (auth.)

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337) and arranged them in sixteen books covering every aspect of law in what became known as the Theodosian Code. This was promulgated as law in the east and adopted in the west by Valentinian III. A far more ambitious attempt to reform and codify Roman law was undertaken a century later by Justinian. He sought to remove all contradictions and repetitions and also to see that laws were compatible with Christian teaching. A commission was therefore set up to examine all legislation and imperial constitutions still in force, with powers to make changes so as to adapt these laws to the existing state of society.

10 In 45Bc Caesar returned to Rome where four years previously he had been proclaimed dictator for life. His first object was to consolidate his hold on power. He began by uniting in his person a number of the Republic's offices, including the Consulate and the Tribunates. Magistrates and provincial governors loyal to him were appointed, and the Senate increased to nine hundred members, also on that basis. His supporters abroad were rewarded by receiving Roman citizenship. He introduced measures of economic and agrarian reform, extended the franchise to provincial cities and legislated on municipal government.

Augustine, who held that Man was from the beginning utterly and hopelessly sinful, and that the only way one could be saved was through the Grace of God. St. Augustine's reasoning was that if Pelagius was correct, then there would be no reason for Christ to redeem Mankind by his crucifixion. However, this also carried the implication of predestination - that God alone could choose to save someone or not. This was another way of trying to reconcile evil creation with a perfect Creator, and divine omnipotence with human respons1"hili"ty.

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