Abduction, Reason and Science - Processes of Discovery and by L. Magnani

By L. Magnani

This booklet ties jointly the worries of philosophers of technology and AI researchers, displaying for instance the connections among clinical pondering and health worker structures. It lays out an invaluable basic framework for dialogue of a number of forms of abduction. It develops very important principles approximately elements of abductive reasoning which were quite missed in cognitive technological know-how, together with using visible and temporal representations and the position of abduction within the withdrawal of hypotheses.

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If, at some moment, turning the switch on does not let the light bulbs starts burning, the inductive explanation just fails, whereas the abductive one can supply hints for understanding what happened and for suggesting remedies (Console and Saitta, 2000). Hence, the two kinds of explanations are very different and distinct, induction firstly aims to provide generalizations, abduction explanations of particular observations. In Console and Saitta's terms (Console and Saitta, 2000), abductive reasoning extends the intension of known individuals (because abducible properties are rendered true for these individuals), without having a genuine generalization impact on the observables (it does not increase their extension)26.

202). C is true of the actual world and it is surprising, a kind of state of doubt we are not able to account for by using our available knowledge. 590) (see also Hintikka, 1998). Hence abduction has to be considered as a kind of ampliative inference that is not logical and truth preserving (in the sense of deductive): indeed valid deduction does not yield any new information, for example new hypotheses previously unknown (on the possible abductive sides of some forms of deduction see also section 4 below).

The conflicting observations will 17 Levi's theory of suppositional reasoning is also related to the problem of "belief change" (Levi, 1991, 1996). Theoretical Abduction 31 require explanations that compel the agent to withdraw its beliefs (hypotheses), and the derived conditional logic is able to account for explanations of facts that conflict with the existing beliefs. , 1990; Reiter, 1987), providing an alternative semantics for both in terms of a plausibility ordering over possible worlds. i The abductive conclusion ex has to cover the situation p Tu{Ctlr-~ The abductive conclusion a does not have to introduce inconsistencies in the background theory Tu~Y~Ct An explanation for ~ relative to background theory T will be any ex that, together with T, entails ~ (normally with the additional condition that (ex} u T be consistent) Generalizations Explanations are relatively implausible Suitable technical tools able to capture the notion of preference among explanations Some of the explanations entail their conclusion only in a defeasible way (there are many potential explanations) Nonmonotonicity 4 Figure 4.

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