Aging and Cancer, 1st Edition by Frederick F. Holmes M.D. (auth.)

By Frederick F. Holmes M.D. (auth.)

The lifetime of a person is finite, and all people age (see Fries 1980). it truly is tricky to split the results of ailment on organs and tissues from these anticipated of getting older. this is often relatively real for vascular and degenerative tactics, for which there are not any transparent obstacles among getting older and disorder. Morbidity and mortality from center disorder and stroke are most likely due either to ailment and to alterations of getting older. For melanoma, the second one best explanation for demise in the US, the placement is sort of diversified; melanoma is obviously a disorder and isn't a metamorphosis anticipated with getting older. melanoma prevalence raises nearly logarithmically after age forty. within the usa approximately one-half of all instances of melanoma are clinically determined after age sixty five, even if these over sixty five include below one-eighth of the inhabitants. therefore, melanoma is especially a lot a illness of the aged. There are no less than purposes for this: first, the lengthy publicity to cancer-inducing brokers, and moment, the waning energy of immune defenses opposed to cancer.

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It has been characterized, categorized, and classified, and innumerable treatment schemes have been tested (Conklin and Alexanian 1975; Midwest Cooperative Chemotherapy Group 1964). No regimen has really proved better than melphalan, an alkylating agent, and prednisone (Brook et al. 1973; Southeastern Cancer Study Group 1975; Hoogstraten 1981). Median duration of survival after diagnosis has been 24-30 months. In spite of this there are a few patients who seem to do well, regardless of treatment.

Lancet 1: 1083-1086 CasagrandeJT, Louie EW, Pike MC, Roy S, Ross RK, Henderson BE (1979) Incessant ovulation and ovarian cancer. Lancet 2: 170-172 Hoover R, Gray LA, Fraumeni JF (1977) Stilboestrol (diethylstilbestrol) and the risk of ovarian cancer. Lancet 2: 533-534 Katz ME, Schwartz PE, Kapp DS, Luikert S (1981) Epithelial carcinoma of the ovary: current strategies. Ann Intern Med 95: 98-111 Tobias JS, Griffiths CT (1976) Management of ovarian carcinoma. N Engl J Med 294: 818-823, 877-882 Young RC, Chabner VA, Hubbard SP, Fisher RI, Bender RA, Anderson T, Simon RM, Canellos GP, DeVita VT (1978) Advanced ovarian carcinoma: a prospective clinical trial of melphalan (L-PAM) versus combination chemotherapy.

1978; Cassagrande et al. 1979). This of course implies endogenous hormonal disturbance similar to women with breast cancer. To compound this aspect, it has been shown that there is an increased use of postmenopausal estrogens in women with ovarian cancer as compared with controls (Hoover et al. 1977). This factor alone has considerable relevance for older women. The capacious female pelvis allows considerable growth of a primary ovarian cancer before increase in abdominal girth or pain alert the patient to its presence.

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