By Mariano Martín
Featuring a accomplished research of using substitute assets of strength and applied sciences to supply fuels and gear, this e-book describes the power price chain from harvesting the uncooked fabric, (i.e sun, wind, biomass or shale fuel) through research of the processing steps into energy, fuels and/or chemical substances and at last the distribution of the products.
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Additional resources for Alternative Energy Sources and Technologies: Process Design and Operation
8 for further discussion on current uses to biofuels production. 2 Biogas This is an alternative energy that has been used for centuries, just like the low temperature solar energy. Biogas is currently used widely all over the world, especially in those areas that do not have reserves of fossil fuels. The ﬁrst evidence of the use of biogas came from the tenth BC, in Mesopotamia, where it was used for heating water, although there are historical overviews that show the use of biogas for residue cleaning by Sumerians.
On the other hand, it should be pointed out that there is a difference between agricultural biogas source and waste biogas source. 1 Biogas from Agricultural Holding There is still a lot of work for the expansion of this technology, which today has more interest from the point of view of sustainability than from achieving parity with the mains. Although there are many facilities all over the world, most need subsidies for viability and their objective is not mainly electricity generation. This Renewable Energy Sector 27 kind of plants takes into account other purposes such as having economic beneﬁts by including residues with inerting cost, getting environmental beneﬁts, the zero waste policies or the lack of other energy sources in rural areas and developing countries.
Grossmann optimization of the investment and operating decisions was addressed in Bohannon (1970), Sullivan (1982) and Haugland et al. (1988) using MILP formulations with different levels of details in these models. Behrenbruch (1993) emphasized the need to consider a correct geological model and to incorporate flexibility into the decision process for an oilﬁeld development project. Iyer et al. (1998) proposed a multiperiod MILP model for optimal planning and scheduling of offshore oilﬁeld infrastructure investment and operations.