An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference) by N. E. Collinge

By N. E. Collinge

* Examines how language works, accounting for its nature, its use, its learn and its history
* accomplished indexes of issues and Technical phrases, and Names
* conscientiously illustrated to give an explanation for key issues within the text

`This wealthy repository of data on all facets of language is a needs to for all libraries in greater schooling, colleges and bigger public libraries.' - Library Review
`Each article has an outstanding bibliography. furthermore, there are entire indexes of subject matters and technical phrases and names. hugely steered for all collage and basic public libraries.' - Choice
`This very important e-book is in lots of methods a state-of-the -art survey of present conceptions of, and techniques to, language, with beneficiant references to extra unique assets. each one bankruptcy has a very good bibliography.' - Language International
`A accomplished advisor ... with very thorough bibliographies ... Collinge's Encyclopedia is usually recommended to educational libraries.' - Reference Reviews
`The bibliographies are a useful relief ... the editor is to be congratulated for having performed an exceptional task ... there are nearly no parts of language and linguistics that don't get a glance in someplace, and there's stable signposting within the textual content itself.' - Nigel Vincent, instances greater schooling complement

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Extra resources for An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference)

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Some scholars have viewed the phoneme as a family of sounds (allophones) in which (i) the members of the family exhibit a certain family resemblance, and (ii) no member of the family ever occurs in a phonetic context where another member of the family could occur. The technical terms for these two properties of allophones of the same phoneme are (i) PHONETIC SIMILARITY and (ii) COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION. In transcriptions, if the units being transcribed are phonemes rather than allophones, it is customary to enclose the symbols in slant lines: /l/.

Sometimes the division clearly differs from a syntactic one, as in Chomsky and Halle’s example The book was in an unlikely place; here there are three stress-groups: the book (which happens to coincide with the subject), place (which happens to consist of a single word), and was in an unlikely (which corresponds to no syntactic unit in the sentence). Even more important, however, is the fact that one and the same sentence may be uttered with a varying number and composition of stress-groups. 5 The foot Like the stress-group, the FOOT is a unit consisting of a stressed syllable together with a number of unstressed syllables.

Certain morphophonemic alternations are more regular than others: the /i:/ v. /e/ of feel/felt recurs in kneel/knelt and deal/ dealt, but is not the normal case for verbs in /-i:l/: appeal, conceal, heal, heel, keel, peel, reel, repeal, reveal, seal, squeal, wheel all have the same vowel /i:/ in their past tense as in their base form (steal is a different case again—see the next paragraph). On the other hand, the alternation between /s/ and /z/ in the regular plural suffix of English is just about totally predictable for all roots: when the immediately preceding phoneme is voiceless, the suffix has the form /s/, as in cats /kæts/, while if the immediately preceding phoneme is voiced, the suffix is pronounced /z/, as in dogs/dɒgz/ and horses /hɔ:sɪz/ (note that in the last example it is the (voiced) vowel /ɪ/, not the voiceless consonant /s/, which immediately precedes the consonant of the plural suffix).

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