By Frank G. Holz, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg, Richard F. Spaide, Alan C. Bird
This lavishly illustrated specified atlas offers a finished and up to date assessment of FAF imaging in retinal illnesses. It additionally compares FAF findings with different imaging concepts corresponding to fundus picture, fluorescein- and ICG angiography in addition to optical coherence tomography.
General ophthalmologists in addition to retina experts will locate this a really helpful consultant which illustrates standard FAF features of varied retinal ailments.
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Extra resources for Atlas of Fundus Autofluorescence Imaging
During the acquisition, images are immediately digitized and displayed on a computer screen. This allows adjustment of settings and optimization of the image in real time Chapter 3 FAF Imaging with the cSLO 33 Three different cSLO systems have so far been used for obtaining FAF images: Heidelberg Retina Angiograph [HRA classic, HRA 2 (Fig. 1) and Spectralis HRA, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany (Fig. 2)]; Rodenstock cSLO (RcSLO; Rodenstock, Weco, Düsseldorf, Germany), and Zeiss prototype SM 30 4024 (ZcSLO; Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany).
1 The Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (cSLO) The confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO), which was originally developed by Webb and coworkers, projects a low-power laser beam on the retina (Fig. 1) . The laser beam is deflected by oscillating mirrors to sequentially scan the fundus in x and y directions. The intensity of the reflected light at each point, after passing through the confocal pinhole, is registered by means of a detector, and a two-dimensional image is subsequently generated.
Hyperpigmentation exhibits high autofluorescence in both imaging modes Chapter 2 Origin of Fundus Autofluorescence 25 also emanates from choroidal pigment (nevi, outer layers), from the pigment epithelium and stroma of the iris, and from hyperpigmentation (Fig. 6b). The latter are clumps of stacked or hyperpigmented (LF, melanin, and melanolipofuscin) RPE cells in the subretinal and sub-RPE space . Similar to SW-FAF, low NIR-FAF is observed in geographic atrophy, indicating that the autofluorescence originates in part from the RPE.